A design method which includes the effect of the torsional-flexural buckling mode of failure is proposed.
The results give a continuous spread of compressive strengths for practical ranges of slenderness parameters. The results show that torsional–flexural buckling and plate buckling need not be considered simultaneously even for unequal angles if they are designed according to CAN/CSA-S16.1-94. Key words: angle, buckling, codes and standards, compression, design strength, flexural buckling, local buckling, specifications, steel, torsional–flexural buckling.
Because steel angles are singly symmetric or asymmetric, torsional-flexural buckling is an important mode of failure.
Compared to 90° angles of the same size, these angles are weaker in torsional-flexural buckling.
We distinguish Euler buckles that develop in beds without cross fractures, block-flexure buckles that form with smooth buckled bedding surfaces in beds with cross fractures, and block buckles that develop with large rotations of rock blocks in rock layers more than 0.1 m thick.
Experimental failure loads are compared with the loads computed according to the general theory of torsional–flexural buckling, ASCE Manual No. 52, and the ECCS recommendations.
Recent experimental studies have shown that the design of 60° angles will be quite safe, if design is carried out using the expressions for factored axial compressive resistances given in CAN/CSA-S16.1-M89, taking into account only the effect of local buckling and flexural buckling about minor axis, and neglecting torsional-flexural buckling.
These two latter properties are required for determining failure loads of angles subjected to torsional–flexural buckling.
The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation consisting of 34 hot-rolled steel angles under concentric compression (slenderness ratios between 50 and 150) failing in torsional?flexural buckling.
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